Although a properly designed and operated cell can last for eight to 10 years, the physical and chemical deterioration often shortens cell life causing more frequent expenses for relining.

Combining knowledge from fundamental principles, laboratory experiments and plant experience, the present book discusses why early failure occurs and how to prevent it.

Test methods for quality control are also discussed extensively.

The present edition is a complete revision of the 2nd edition to include new knowledge since 1994. As before, it emphasises quantitative information.

In addition the authors have followed reader’s request to give more definite conclusions and recommendations.

The book now includes a larger number of documented cell failures and their causes. This chapter is expanded with new examples.

Of interest to: Managers, researchers, works engineers, as well as to technologists in aluminium reduction or remelting plants, to scientists and students in metallurgy and physical chemistry, and to technical libraries.


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